Neuromorphic computing technology continues to make strides in the development of new algorithms, devices, and materials. In addition, applications have begun to emerge where neuromorphic computing shows promising results. However, numerous barriers to further development and application remain. In this work, we identify several science areas where neuromorphic computing can either make an immediate impact (within 1 to 3 years) or the societal impact would be extremely high if the technological barriers can be addressed. We identify both opportunities and hurdles to the development of neuromorphic computing technology for these areas. Finally, we discuss future directions that need to be addressed to expand both the development and application of neuromorphic computing.