Recent work has demonstrated that quantum Fisher information (QFI), a witness of multipartite entanglement, and magnetic Van Hove correlations G(r,t), a probe of local real-space real-time spin dynamics, can be successfully extracted from inelastic neutron scattering on spin systems through accurate measurements of the dynamical spin structure factor S(k,ω). Here we apply theoretically these ideas to the half-filled Hubbard chain with nearest-neighbor hopping, away from the strong-coupling limit. This model has nontrivial redistribution of spectral weight in S(k,ω) going from the noninteracting limit (U=0) to strong coupling (U→∞), where it reduces to the Heisenberg quantum spin chain. We use the density matrix renormalization group to find S(k,ω), from which QFI is then calculated. We find that QFI grows with U. With realistic energy resolution it becomes capable of witnessing bipartite entanglement above U=2.5 (in units of the hopping), where it also changes slope. This point is also proximate to slope changes of the bandwidth W(U) and the half-chain von Neumann entanglement entropy. We compute G(r,t) by Fourier transforming S(k,ω). The results indicate a crossover in the short-time short-distance dynamics at low U characterized by ferromagnetic light-cone wavefronts, to a Heisenberg-type behavior at large U featuring antiferromagnetic light cones and spatially period-doubled antiferromagnetism. We find this crossover has largely been completed by U=3. Our results thus provide evidence that, in several aspects, the strong-coupling limit of the Hubbard chain is reached qualitatively already at a relatively modest interaction strength. We discuss experimental candidates for observing the G(r,t) dynamics found at low U.