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Internal carburization and scale formation on austenitic steels in supercritical carbon dioxide

by Bruce A Pint, Yi Feng Su, Michael J Lance, Rishi R Pillai, James R Keiser
Publication Type
Journal Name
Materials at High Temperatures
Publication Date
Page Numbers
308 to 317

Direct-fired supercritical CO2 (sCO2) power cycles are being commercialised to revolutionise fossil energy as a low-emission power source. To lower the cost of this technology, less expensive steels are needed in the lower temperature segments of the cycle. However, there are concerns about internal carburisation of steels in sCO2.Footnote1 A consistent observation is that thin, Cr-rich oxides appear to reduce C ingress compared to thick Fe-rich oxides formed on 9–12% Cr ferritic-martensitic steels. Advanced austenitic stainless steels (SS) like alloy 709 (20Cr-25Ni) are able to continue to form Cr-rich oxides at 650°C, while a conventional type 316 H SS formed a Fe-rich scale. The C diffusion profiles in SS specimens were quantified at 550°C–650°C using glow discharge optical emission spectroscopy and electron probe microanalysis. Analytical transmission electron microscopy was used to compare the thin protective Cr-rich oxide formed on alloy 709 in sCO2 at 650°C to that formed in ambient air.