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Gravitational-wave signal of a core-collapse supernova explosion of a 15M⊙ star...

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Physical Review D
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We report on the gravitational-wave signal computed in the context of a three-dimensional simulation of a core-collapse supernova explosion of a 15 M⊙ star. The simulation was performed with our neutrino hydrodynamics code chimera. We detail the gravitational wave strains as a function of time, for both polarizations, and discuss their physical origins. We also present the corresponding spectral signatures. Gravitational wave emission in our model has two key features: low-frequency emission (less than 200 Hz) emanates from the gain layer as a result of neutrino-driven convection and the standing accretion shock instability (SASI), and high-frequency emission (greater than 600 Hz) emanates from the proto–neutron star due to Ledoux convection within it. The high-frequency emission dominates the gravitational wave emission in our model and emanates largely from the convective layer itself, not from the convectively stable layer above it, due to convective overshoot. Moreover, the low-frequency emission emanates from the gain layer itself, not from the proto–neutron star, due to accretion onto it. We provide evidence of the SASI in our model and demonstrate that the peak of our low-frequency gravitational wave emission spectrum corresponds to it. Given its origin in the gain layer, we classify the SASI emission in our model as p-mode emission and assign a purely acoustic origin, not a vortical–acoustic origin, to it. We compare the results of our three-dimensional model analysis with those obtained from the model’s two-dimensional counterpart and find a significant reduction in the strain amplitudes in the former case, as well as significant reductions in all related quantities. Our dominant proto–neutron star gravitational wave emission is not well characterized by emission from surface g modes, complicating the relationship between peak frequencies observed and the mass and radius of the proto–neutron star expressed by analytic estimates under the assumption of surface g-mode emission. We present our frequency normalized characteristic strain along with the sensitivity curves of current- and next-generation gravitational wave detectors. This simple analysis indicates that the spectrum of gravitational wave emission between approximately 20 Hz and approximately 1 kHz, stemming from neutrino-driven convection, the SASI, accretion onto the proto–neutron star, and proto–neutron star convection, will be accessible for a Galactic event.