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Eutectic Synthesis of the P2-Type Na x Fe 1/2 Mn 1/2 O 2 Cathode with Improved Cell Design for Sodium-Ion Batteries

Publication Type
Journal Name
ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Publication Date
Page Numbers
23951 to 23958

An engaging area of research in sodium-ion batteries (SIBs) has been focusing on discovery, design, and synthesis of high-capacity cathode materials in order to boost energy density to levels close enough to that of state-of-the-art lithium-ion batteries. Of particular interest, P2-type layered oxide, Na2/3Fe1/2Mn1/2O2, has been researched as a potential cathode in SIBs based on its high theoretical capacity of 260 mA h/g and use of noncritical materials. However, the reported synthesis methods are not only complex and energy-demanding but also often yield inhomogeneous and impure materials with capacities less than 200 mA h/g under impractical test conditions. Here, we report a novel synthesis route using low-temperature eutectic reaction to produce highly homogeneous, crystalline, and impurity-free P2-NaxFe1/2Mn1/2O2 with enhanced Na-ion diffusivity and kinetics. The overall electrochemical performances of the Na-ion cells have been improved by pairing the P2-cathode with presodiated hard carbon anodes, leading to reversible capacities in the range of 180 mA h/g. This new approach is a contribution toward the simplification of synthesis and scalability of sodium-based cathodes with high crystallinity and fine-tuned morphology and the realization of a sodium-ion battery system with lower cost and improved electrochemical performance.