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Electron‐Beam‐Related Studies of Halide Perovskites: Challenges and Opportunities...

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Advanced Energy Materials
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Electron beam microscopy and related characterization techniques play an important role in revealing the microstructural, morphological, physical, and chemical information of halide perovskites and their impact on associated optoelectronic devices. However, electron beam irradiation usually causes damage to these beam‐sensitive materials, negatively impacting their device performance, and complicating this interpretation. In this article, the electron microscopy and spectroscopy techniques are reviewed that are crucial for the understanding of the crystallization and microstructure of halide perovskites. In addition, special attention is paid to assessing and mitigating the electron beam‐induced damage caused by these techniques. Since the halide perovskites are fragile, a protocol involving delicate control of both electron beam dose and dose rate, coupled with careful data analysis, is key to enable the acquisition of reliable structural and compositional information such as atomic‐resolution images, chemical elemental mapping and electron diffraction patterns. Limiting the electron beam dose is critical parameter enabling the characterization of various halide perovskites. Novel methods to unveil the mechanisms of device operation, including charge carrier generation, diffusion, and extraction are presented in scanning electron microscopy studies combined with electron‐beam‐induced current and cathodoluminescence mapping. Future opportunities for electron‐beam‐related characterizations of halide perovskites are also discussed.