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Electroanalytical Exploration of Li Loss at the Solid Electrolyte-Anode Interface in Anode-Free Batteries with Polymer Electrolytes

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Journal of the Electrochemical Society
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Li loss during cycling at the solid electrolyte∣anode interface strongly determines the cycle life of anode-free solid-state batteries (SSBs). Here, this loss is probed electroanalytically for polymer electrolyte (PE)-based SSBs in anode-free coin cells with practical pressures. A wide range of parameters expected to impact the measured average coulombic efficiency (CE) were explored to estimate the expected range of performance. These factors include PE type, cycling profiles, current collector type, and the presence of a thin Li seed layer. Low CE values in the ∼50%–85% range are observed for all electrolytes and test conditions. Other than the electrolyte type, a strong dependence of the CE on the electrochemical cycling profile and the type of metallic current collector is observed. Compared to the anode-free setup, the presence of a thin (5 μm) Li seed layer did not improve the average CE for two out of three PEs, suggesting its presence to be a weak contributor in minimizing the Li loss. This work provides baseline data on the Li losses in low-pressure anode-free configuration cells with PEs.