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Considering interplay between multiple physical phenomena to elucidate single crystal-like texture, phase transformations, and mechanical behavior of directed energy deposited SS316L

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Materials Science and Engineering: A
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A widespread implementation of large scale additive manufacturing (AM) processes, such as wire arc-directed energy deposition (WA-DED) AM can transform the current manufacturing supply chain networks. Naturally, such implementation requires control of the microstructural attributes, such as texture and phase evolution in the processed alloys. Currently, the texture evolution in fusion-based AM (F-BAM) processes is majorly rationalized by the phenomena occurring only during solidification. However, such rationalization is insufficient for understanding the evolution of primary and secondary crystallographic orientations, and consequently, fails to offer a comprehensive understanding and control of overall texture in F-BAM processed alloys. To this end, we report a single crystal (SX)-like texture in WA-DED processed SS316L for the first time. Furthermore, we assess the physical phenomena that may lead to such unique microstructural evolution during WA-DED AM. Subsequently, using microstructural characterization spanning the build height and thermomechanical simulations we investigate the effect of competitive growth and epitaxial growth occurring during solidification and thermally induced plastic deformation occurring post solidification on the overall texture of WA-DED processed SS316L. A spatial variation in solidification pathway is also established and correlated with variation in undercoolings across the build. Tensile tests revealed a strong orientation dependence of deformation mechanisms with over 110% elongation to failure of specimens deformed along <011>. Such anisotropy is rationalized using Schmid's analysis of dislocation slip and deformation twinning. Overall, the mechanisms outlined in this work will facilitate an enhanced understanding and subsequent control of texture evolution, solidification behavior and mechanical behavior of WA-DED processed steels.