CENTAUR has been selected as one of the eight initial instruments to be built at the Second Target Station (STS) of the Spallation Neutron Source at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. It is a small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) and wide-angle neutron scattering (WANS) instrument with diffraction and spectroscopic capabilities. This instrument will maximally leverage the high brightness of the STS source, the state-of-the-art neutron optics, and a suite of detectors to deliver unprecedented capabilities that enable measurements over a wide range of length scales with excellent resolution, measurements on smaller samples, and time-resolved investigations of evolving structures. Notably, the simultaneous WANS and diffraction capability will be unique among neutron scattering instruments in the United States. This instrument will provide much needed capabilities for soft matter and polymer sciences, geology, biology, quantum condensed matter, and other materials sciences that need in situ and operando experiments for kinetic and/or out-of-equilibrium studies. Beam polarization and a high-resolution chopper will enable detailed structural and dynamical investigations of magnetic and quantum materials. CENTAUR’s excellent resolution makes it ideal for low-angle diffraction studies of highly ordered large-scale structures, such as skyrmions, shear-induced ordering in colloids, and biomembranes. Additionally, the spectroscopic mode of this instrument extends to lower momentum transfers than are currently possible with existing spectrometers, thereby providing a unique capability for inelastic SANS studies.