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3D printing synthesis of catalysts...

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Materials Today Sustainability
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The catalyst industry generates approximately $20 billion every year globally and plays a major role in the energy production sector. Traditional industrial catalysts (e.g., pellets) typically have mass and heat transfer limitations, and cause a pressure drop in continuous-flow reactors, lowering the efficiency of the catalytic processes. 3D printing technology has evolved rapidly over the past decade, and the 3D printing of catalysts with desired geometries can address many of the above-stated challenges with traditional catalysts. However, challenges remain to be addressed and opportunities remain to be explored before the full potential in the design and 3D printing of novel catalysts can be realized. This article reviews the recent development in the 3D printing of catalysts. It summarizes the 3D printing design, dimension, property, and performance of 3D printed catalysts. The applications of 3D printed catalysts, such as reforming, wastewater treatment, and CO2 capture and removal, are discussed, with a techno-economic analysis and life cycle analysis. Future research directions and opportunities for 3D printing of catalysts are also highlighted.