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2022 roadmap on 3D printing for energy...

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Journal of Physics: Energy
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The energy transition is one of the main challenges of our society and therefore a major driver for the scientific community. To ensure a smart transition to a sustainable future energy scenario different technologies such as energy harvesting using solar cells or windmills and chemical storage in batteries, super-capacitors or hydrogen have to be developed and ultimately deployed. New fabrication approaches based on additive manufacturing and the digitalization of the industrial processes increase the potential to achieve highly efficient and smart technologies required to increase the competitiveness of clean energy technologies against fossil fuels. In this frame, the present roadmap highlights the tremendous potential of 3D printing as a new route to fully automate the manufacturing of energy devices designed as digital files. This article gives numerous guidelines to maximize the performance and efficiency of the next generation of 3D printed devices for the energy transition while reducing the waste of critical raw materials. In particular, the paper is focused on the current status, present challenges and the expected and required advances of 3D printing for the fabrication of the most relevant energy technologies such as fuel cells and electrolysers, batteries, solar cells, super-capacitors, thermoelectric generators, chemical reactors and turbomachinery.