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Review of Computer-Aided Manufacturing (CAM) strategies for hybrid directed energy deposition...

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Additive Manufacturing
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Hybrid additive manufacturing intertwines both additive and subtractive manufacturing layer by layer to digitally fabricate parts with complex geometries, improved surface finish and tight dimensional accuracies, the sum of which is difficult to obtain with any single process. Computer-Aided Manufacturing (CAM) software is required to orchestrate the machine toolpathing for both the deposition as well as the machining processes and is crucial for the successful fabrication of high quality structures. CAM requires substantial operator input to account for challenging aspects of each fabricated structure. For example, deciding at which layer of deposition will the machining process continue to maintain access to complex cavities for finishing - internal features that would otherwise be unfinishable due to reach limitations or obstructions. Moreover, of the many commercially-available hybrid systems, each has a unique kinematic environment which can benefit from specific optimization of toolpath planning and substantial research has directly correlated toolpathing with the microstructure evolution, mechanical properties, porosity and residual stress state of the final fabricated part. This review explores the available strategies for CAM in the context of hybrid direct energy deposition, discusses the advantages and disadvantages of each and considers future CAM trends for this transformational digital manufacturing technology.