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More Than 30 000-fold Field Enhancement of Terahertz Nanoresonators Enabled by Rapid Inverse Design

by Hyoung Taek Lee, Jeonghoon Kim, Joon Sue Lee, Mina Yoon, Hyeong Ryeol Park
Publication Type
Journal Name
Nano Letters
Publication Date
Page Numbers
11685 to 11692

The rapid development of 6G communications using terahertz (THz) electromagnetic waves has created a demand for highly sensitive THz nanoresonators capable of detecting these waves. Among the potential candidates, THz nanogap loop arrays show promising characteristics but require significant computational resources for accurate simulation. This requirement arises because their unit cells are 10 times smaller than millimeter wavelengths, with nanogap regions that are 1 000 000 times smaller. To address this challenge, we propose a rapid inverse design method using physics-informed machine learning, employing double deep Q-learning with an analytical model of the THz nanogap loop array. In ∼39 h on a middle-level personal computer, our approach identifies the optimal structure through 200 000 iterations, achieving an experimental electric field enhancement of 32 000 at 0.2 THz, 300% stronger than prior results. Our analytical model-based approach significantly reduces the amount of computational resources required, offering a practical alternative to numerical simulation-based inverse design for THz nanodevices.