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Mode connectivity in the loss landscape of parameterized quantum circuits...

by Kathleen E Hamilton, Emily G Lynn, Raphael C Pooser
Publication Type
Journal Name
Quantum Machine Intelligence
Publication Date
Page Numbers
1 to 13

Variational training of parameterized quantum circuits (PQCs) underpins many workflows employed on near-term noisy intermediate scale quantum (NISQ) devices. It is a hybrid quantum-classical approach that minimizes an associated cost function in order to train a parameterized ansatz. In this paper we adapt the qualitative loss landscape characterization for neural networks introduced in Goodfellow et al. (2014); Li et al. (2017) and tests for connectivity used in Draxler et al. (2018) to study the loss landscape features in PQC training. We present results for PQCs trained on a simple regression task, using the bilayer circuit ansatz, which consists of alternating layers of parameterized rotation gates and entangling gates. Multiple circuits are trained with 3 different batch gradient optimizers: stochastic gradient descent, the quantum natural gradient, and Adam. We identify large features in the landscape that can lead to faster convergence in training workflows.