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Machine Learning Enabled Sensor Fusion for In-Situ Defect Detection in L-PBF

by Zackary K Snow, Luke R Scime, Amir K Ziabari, Brian Fisher, Vincent C Paquit
Publication Type
ORNL Report
Publication Date

Laser Powder Bed Fusion (L-PBF) Additive Manufacturing (AM) is among the metal 3D printing technologies most broadly adopted by the manufacturing industry. The current industry qualification paradigm for critical-application L-PBF parts relies heavily on expensive non-destructive inspection techniques such as X-Ray Computed Tomography (XCT), which significantly limits the use-cases of L-PBF. In situ monitoring of the process promises a less expensive alternative to ex situ testing, but existing sensor technologies and data analysis techniques struggle to detect sub-surface flaws (e.g., porosity and cracking) on production-scale L-PBF printers. RTX Technologies Research Center (RTRC) has licensed ORNL’s Peregrine software package – a printer- and camera-agnostic data analytics tool designed specifically for detecting process anomalies using in situ data collected during powder bed printing. The goal of this project was to feed temporally rich, multi-modal sensor data, including visible light, integrated near infrared (NIR), and spatially mapped co-axial melt pool thermal emission data into Peregrine to enable detection of subsurface flaws. XCT data was used as ground truth training data to allow Peregrine’s deep learning algorithms to recognize anomalies in these complex data streams in both test artifacts and industrially relevant geometries. Completion of this program has seen the successful implementation of multi-modal, multi-layer sensor data footprints for training of machine learning models in Peregrine. Flaws detected in XCT data have been successfully detected directly from this in situ data footprint, and initial analyses of the in situ probability-of-detection has been conducted, showing performance levels commensurate with traditional non-destructive evaluation (NDE) methods. The in situ monitoring methodology was then applied to an industrially relevant component that was using post-build NDE, highlighting the utility of the proposed method for hard-to-inspect AM components. As a direct result of this program, two journal manuscripts [1], [2] have been published in Additive Manufacturing, with additional manuscripts planned following program completion.