Mutualistic association can improve a plant’s health and productivity. G-type lectin receptor-like kinase (PtLecRLK1) is a susceptibility factor in Populus trichocarpa that permits root colonization by a beneficial fungus, Laccaria bicolor. Engineering PtLecRLK1 also permits L. bicolor root colonization in non-host plants similar to Populus trichocarpa. The intracellular signaling reprogramed by PtLecRLK1 upon recognition of L. bicolor to allow for the development and maintenance of symbiosis is yet to be determined. In this study, phosphoproteomics was utilized to identify phosphorylation-based relevant signaling pathways associated with PtLecRLK1 recognition of L. bicolor in transgenic switchgrass roots. Our finding shows that PtLecRLK1 in transgenic plants modifies the chitin-triggered plant defense and MAPK signaling along with a significant adjustment in phytohormone signaling, ROS balance, endocytosis, cytoskeleton movement, and proteasomal degradation in order to facilitate the establishment and maintenance of L. bicolor colonization. Moreover, protein–protein interaction data implicate a cGMP-dependent protein kinase as a potential substrate of PtLecRLK1.