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Improved core-edge compatibility using impurity seeding in the small angle slot (SAS) divertor at DIII-D...

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Physics of Plasmas
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Impurity seeding studies in the small angle slot (SAS) divertor at DIII-D have revealed a strong relationship between the detachment onset and pedestal characteristics with both target geometry and impurity species. N2 seeding in the slot has led to the first simultaneous observation of detachment on the entire suite of boundary diagnostics viewing the SAS without degradation of core confinement. SOLPS-ITER simulations with D+C+N, full cross field drifts, and n–n collisions activated are performed for the first time in DIII-D to interpret the behavior. This highlights a strong effect of divertor configuration and plasma drifts on the recycling source distribution with significant consequences on plasma flows. Flow reversal is found for both main ions and impurities affecting strongly the impurity transport and providing an explanation for the observed dependence on the strike point location of the detachment onset and impurity leakage found in the experiments. Matched discharges with either nitrogen or neon injection show that while nitrogen does not significantly affect the pedestal, neon leads to increased pedestal pressure gradients and improved pedestal stability. Little nitrogen penetrates in the core, but a significant amount of neon is found in the pedestal consistent with the different ionization potentials of the two impurities. This work demonstrates that neutral and impurity distributions in the divertor can be controlled through variations in strike point locations in a fixed baffle structure. Divertor geometry combined with impurity seeding enables mitigated divertor heat flux balancing core contamination, thus leading to enhanced divertor dissipation and improved core-edge compatibility, which are essential for ITER and for future fusion reactors.