The extreme versatility of van der Waals materials originates from their ability to exhibit new electronic properties when assembled in close proximity to dissimilar crystals. For example, although graphene is inherently nonmagnetic, recent work has reported a magnetic proximity effect in graphene interfaced with magnetic substrates, potentially enabling a pathway toward achieving a high-temperature quantum anomalous Hall effect. Here, we investigate heterostructures of graphene and chromium trihalide magnetic insulators (CrI3, CrBr3, and CrCl3). Surprisingly, we are unable to detect a magnetic exchange field in the graphene but instead discover proximity effects featuring unprecedented gate tunability. The graphene becomes highly hole-doped due to charge transfer from the neighboring magnetic insulator and further exhibits a variety of atypical gate-dependent transport features. The charge transfer can additionally be altered upon switching the magnetic states of the nearest CrI3 layers. Our results provide a roadmap for exploiting proximity effects arising in graphene coupled to magnetic insulators.