The introduction of new fuels into the market is a unique opportunity to take advantage of new fuel compositions to improve the efficiency and emissions of internal combustion reciprocating engines and alternative fuel feedstocks. However, there are numerous challenges that introductions of new fuels face before they can become first legal, then ubiquitous. This chapter reviews four different case studies related to changing fuel composition. In some circumstances, the fuel formulation was changed in seemingly minor ways, and resulted in the unanticipated consequences. In other cases, a fuel change was desired, but an unexpected barrier slowed the introduction of the fuel change. These case studies should be viewed as opportunities to understand the interdependencies that exist and factors that need to be considered when trying to change the fuel in the marketplace.