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Experimental study on a novel three-phase absorption thermal battery with high energy density applied to buildings...

by Lingshi Wang, Xiaobing Liu, Zhiyao Yang, Kyle R Gluesenkamp
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Buildings contribute to 75% of total electricity consumption and 80% of peak electricity demand in the United States. A significant portion of building electricity consumption goes to space conditioning. Therefore, using thermal energy storage (TES) to decouple the building electricity consumption and the fluctuating space-conditioning load has significant potential to shift peak electricity demand and improve the stability of the grid. To provide effective TES within the spatial constraints in buildings, a three-phase absorption thermal battery (TATB) system with very high energy storage density was designed and studied. The TATB stores low-temperature heat in hydrate crystals of salts and supports space conditioning through absorption systems. In this study, a benchtop TATB using lithium chloride (LiCl) hydrate crystals as the storage material was tested under practical operating conditions for its energy storage density and discharge rate. The TATB successfully generated LiCl hydrate crystals during charging mode and then dissolved the crystals during discharging mode. A material-based energy storage density of 300 kWh/m3 (specific energy of 903 kJ/kg) was achieved with a discharge rate of up to 1.3 kW thermal energy. The test results verified the high performance of the TATB and encouraged further development of this technology.