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Effect of Impurities on the Compatibility of Steels in Supercritical CO2 at 450°–650°C

by Bruce A Pint, Michael J Lance, Rishi R Pillai, James R Keiser
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Journal of Engineering for Gas Turbines and Power
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Direct-fired supercritical CO2 (sCO2) power cycles are a pathway to low-CO2 fossil energy but contain O2 and H2O in the sCO2 from combustion. The effect of impurities on structural steels was investigated at 450°–650 °C in 30 MPa sCO2. The test matrix included 9 and 12%Cr ferritic-martensitic (FM) steels and conventional and advanced austenitic steels exposed for 1000–2000 h with and without additions of 1%O2 and 0.1%H2O to simulate the cycle after water removal. For FM steels, the mass gains and scale thicknesses were similar with and without impurities with the formation of thick, duplex Fe-rich scales in all cases including the observation that Fe2O3 only formed with 1%O2. For the austenitic steels, higher mass gains were observed at all temperatures with increased formation of Fe-rich oxides when impurities were added. Carbon ingress was assessed by bulk combustion analysis, glow discharge optical emission spectroscopy (GDOES) and measuring postexposure room temperature tensile properties. Bulk C content was strongly increased at 650 °C but not at 450° or 550 °C.