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Dynamics of quarks and gauge fields in the lowest-energy states in QED and QCD interactions

by Cheuk-yin Wong, Andrew Koshelkin
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The European Physical Journal A
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We examine the dynamics of quarks and gauge fields in the lowest energy states in the QED and QCD interactions by combining Schwinger’s longitudinal confinement in (1+1)D with Polyakov’s transverse confinement in (2+1)D in a “stretch (2+1)D” flux tube model in (3+1)D. For such QED and QCD systems in the flux tube configuration with cylindrical symmetry, we separate out the transverse and longitudinal degrees of freedom, approximate the non-Abelian QCD in the quasi-Abelian approximation, and solve the derived equations to study the collective excitations. We find stable collective QED and QCD excitations showing up as confined QED and QCD mesons, in support of previous theoretical studies and recent observations of the anomalous hypothetical X17 and E38 particles. Future theoretical lattice gauge calculations of QED in (3+1)D with the inclusion of the Schwinger longitudinal confinement mechanism and experimental confirmation of the hypothetical X17 and E38 particles will shed definitive light on quark confinement in the QED interaction in (3+1)D.