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Dynamic control of ferroionic states in ferroelectric nanoparticles...

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Acta Materialia
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The polar states of uniaxial ferroelectric nanoparticles interacting with a surface system of electronic and ionic charges with a broad distribution of mobilities is explored, which corresponds to the experimental case of nanoparticles in solution or ambient conditions. The nonlinear interactions between the ferroelectric dipoles and surface charges with slow relaxation dynamics in an external field lead to the emergence of a broad range of paraelectric-like, antiferroelectric-like ionic, and ferroelectric-like ferroionic states. The crossover between these states can be controlled not only by the static characteristics of the surface charges, but also by their relaxation dynamics in the applied field. Obtained results are not only promising for advanced applications of ferroelectric nanoparticles in nanoelectronics and optoelectronics, they also offer strategies for experimental verification.