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Development of a Supercharged Octane Number and a Supercharged Octane Index

by Alex Hoth, Christopher Kolodziej, Muhammed Waqas, James P Szybist, Scott Miers
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SAE Technical Paper Series
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Gasoline knock resistance is characterized by the Research and Motor Octane Number (RON and MON), which are rated on the CFR octane rating engine at naturally aspirated conditions. However, modern automotive downsized boosted spark ignition (SI) engines generally operate at higher cylinder pressures and lower temperatures relative to the RON and MON tests. Using the naturally aspirated RON and MON ratings, the octane index (OI) characterizes the knock resistance of gasolines under boosted operation by linearly extrapolating into boosted “beyond RON” conditions via RON, MON, and a linear regression K factor. Using OI solely based on naturally aspirated RON and MON tests to extrapolate into boosted conditions can lead to significant errors in predicting boosted knock resistance between gasolines due to non-linear changes in autoignition and knocking characteristics with increasing pressure conditions. A new “Supercharged Octane Number” (SON) method was developed on the CFR engine at increased intake pressures, which improved the correlation to boosted knock-limited automotive SI engine data over RON for several surrogate fuels and gasolines, including five “Co-Optima” RON 98 fuels and an E10 regular grade gasoline. Furthermore, the conventional OI was extended to a newly introduced Supercharged Octane Index (OIS) based on SON and RON, which significantly improved the correlation to fuel knock resistance measurements from modern boosted SI engine knock-limited spark advance tests. This demonstrated the first proof of concept of a SON and OIS to better characterize a fuel’s knock resistance in modern boosted SI engines.