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Characterization of nonlinear ultrasonic waves behavior while interacting with poor interlayer bonds in large-scale additive ...

by Sina Zamen, Ehsan Dehghan-niri, Helem Al-beer, John M Lindahl, Ahmed A Hassen
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NDT & E International
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Over the past decades, researchers have developed several nonlinear ultrasonic techniques for quality control of materials commonly used in different applications. Owing to the superior sensitivity of nonlinear ultrasound waves to small defects such as micro-cracks, their applicability in different nondestructive testing (NDT) problems has been investigated in numerous studies. These studies utilize frequency domain analysis to detect the generation of higher harmonics because of the formation of defects in the inspected medium. Frequency domain analysis based on the Fourier transform is a significant approach used in linear systems; however, it may not perform adequately on nonlinear systems. Hence, studies on nonlinear dynamics and physics consider analyzing systems' behavior in the phase-space domain. In contrast to the frequency domain analysis, which can result in information loss, analysis in the phase-space domain retains all the information regarding a system's states. In this study, the nonlinearities induced by poor interlayer bonding in polymer-based additive manufactured parts in the phase-space domain are investigated. It is convenient to characterize the nonlinearity in the phase-space domain because it provides a geometrical representation of a system's states. Two types of low quality interlayer bond are considered. The first type is simulated artificially while the second type is manufactured by reducing the bond quality during the printing process. The analysis verified that the received ultrasonic signals exhibit classical nonlinear behavior in the phase-space domain while interacting with simulated poor interlayer bonds. In addition, the results showed that the behavior of ultrasonic waves is amplitude-dependent and evolves into models that have not been previously reported. Furthermore, Largest Lyapunov Exponent (LLE) is used to quantify the behavior of nonlinear ultrasonic waves while interacting with poor interlayer bonds. Using LLE, it was observed that the divergence rate of the phase-space trajectories depends on the amplitude of the excitation. This observation quantitatively proves that nonlinear behavior of ultrasound while interacting with poor interlayer bonds can be amplitude-dependent. The results of both simulated and inherent poor interlayer bond cases showed that LLE can be used as a reliable quantitative damage-sensitive feature to detect and potentially characterize weak bonds, which are difficult to detect using conventional approaches. In addition, the reported results in the phase-space domain provide a basis for proposing a new mathematical model for ultrasonic waves interacting with poor interlayer bonds.