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Beyond Pristine Metal–Organic Frameworks: Preparation of Hollow MOFs and Their Composites for Catalysis, Sensing, and Adsor...

by Xiaoqian Zha, Xianhui Zhao, Erin G Webb, Shifa Khan, Yang Wang
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Metal–organic frameworks (MOFs) have been broadly applied to numerous domains with a substantial surface area, tunable pore size, and multiple unsaturated metal sites. Recently, hollow MOFs have greatly attracted the scientific community due to their internal cavities and gradient pore structures. Hollow MOFs have a higher tunability, faster mass-transfer rates, and more accessible active sites when compared to traditional, solid MOFs. Hollow MOFs are also considered to be candidates for some functional material carriers. For example, composite materials such as hollow MOFs and metal nanoparticles, metal oxides, and enzymes have been prepared. These composite materials integrate the characteristics of hollow MOFs with functional materials and are broadly used in many aspects. This review describes the preparation strategies of hollow MOFs and their composites as well as their applications in organic catalysis, electrochemical sensing, and adsorption separation. Finally, we hope that this review provides meaningful knowledge about hollow-MOF composites and their derivatives and offers many valuable references to develop hollow-MOF-based applied materials.