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Analysis of Conduction Cooling Strategies for Wire Arc Additive Manufacturing...

by Lauren Heinrich, Thomas A Feldhausen, Kyle S Saleeby, Christopher Saldana, Thomas R Kurfess
Publication Type
Conference Paper
Journal Name
Proceedings of the ASME 2022 17th International Manufacturing Science and Engineering Conference
Book Title
Proceedings of the ASME 2022 17th International Manufacturing Science and Engineering Conference
Publication Date
Page Numbers
1 to 10
Publisher Location
New York, United States of America
Conference Name
Proceedings of the 2022 17th ASME International Manufacturing Science and Engineering Conference (MSEC)
Conference Location
West Lafayette, Indiana, United States of America
Conference Sponsor
Purdue University
Conference Date

Metal additive manufacturing (AM) processing consists of numerous parameters which take time to optimize for various geometries. One aspect of the metal AM process that continues to be explored is the control of thermal energy accumulation during component manufacturing due to the melting and solidification of the feedstock. Excessive energy accumulation causes thermal failure of the component while minimal energy accumulation causes lack of fusion with the build plate or previous layer. The ability to simulate the thermal response of an AM component can increase research efficiency by reducing the time to optimize thermal energy accumulation. This paper presents an effective implementation of finite element analysis to determine the thermal response of a wire arc additive manufactured component with various build plate sizes and cooling methods including, integral build plate cooling, oversized build plates with passive cooling, and non-integral build plate cooling. The use of integral build plate cooling channels was shown to decrease the interpass temperature at the conclusion of the build process by 55% and build plate temperature by 96% compared to the conventionally deposited sample with 20 second dwell time. The use of a tall build plate with passive cooling was shown to reduce the interpass temperature by 32% as compared to the conventionally deposited sample with 20 second dwell time. Each cooling strategy evaluated decreased the interpass temperature within a range of 20–55% which enables higher deposition rates and decreased dwell times during depositions. The cooling strategies are designed to be implemented in a hybrid or retrofit AM platform to mitigate concerns of the thermal input from the additive process having detrimental effects on the precision of the machining process. This paper shows that accurate simulations of all strategies can be used to accurately predict the thermal response of the various strategies discussed. These cooling strategies will allow for increased deposition rates with comparable interpass temperature and decreased dwell time, increasing deposition efficiency. This model and these simulations are verified by experimental results. It is concluded that passive strategies, such as the over-sized tall build plate, can be used when liquid coolant in the AM environment could negatively affect the deposition process. Active cooling strategies, such as the integral build plate cooling could be used if low thermal conductivity materials are deposited or higher material deposition rates are desired. This paper discusses the use of active and passive cooling used during AM and shows how a simulation model can be used to make design choices for cooling strategies. The model also enables verification of select critical process parameters such as dwell times for a desired interpass temperature.