Small secreted proteins (SSPs) are less than 250 amino acids in length and are actively transported out of cells through conventional protein secretion pathways or unconventional protein secretion pathways. In plants, SSPs have been found to play important roles in various processes, including plant growth and development, plant response to abiotic and biotic stresses, and beneficial plant–microbe interactions. Over the past 10 years, substantial progress has been made in the identification and functional characterization of SSPs in several plant species relevant to agriculture, bioenergy, and horticulture. Yet, there are potentially a lot of SSPs that have not been discovered in plant genomes, which is largely due to limitations of existing computational algorithms. Recent advances in genomics, transcriptomics, and proteomics research, as well as the development of new computational algorithms based on machine learning, provide unprecedented capabilities for genome-wide discovery of novel SSPs in plants. In this review, we summarize known SSPs and their functions in various plant species. Then we provide an update on the computational and experimental approaches that can be used to discover new SSPs. Finally, we discuss strategies for elucidating the biological functions of SSPs in plants.