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Spatial coupling of gyrokinetic simulations, a generalized scheme based on first-principles...

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Physics of Plasmas
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We present a scheme that spatially couples two gyrokinetic codes using first-principles. Coupled equations are presented and a necessary and sufficient condition for ensuring accuracy is derived. This new scheme couples both the field and the particle distribution function. The coupling of the distribution function is only performed once every few time-steps, using a five-dimensional (5D) grid to communicate the distribution function between the two codes. This 5D grid interface enables the coupling of different types of codes and models, such as particle and continuum codes, or delta-f and total-f models. Transferring information from the 5D grid to the marker particle weights is achieved using a new resampling technique. Demonstration of the coupling scheme is shown using two XGC gyrokinetic simulations for both the core and edge. We also apply the coupling scheme to two continuum simulations for a one-dimensional advection–diffusion problem.