The residual strains in three high-pressure die cast A383 engine blocks were measured using neutron diffraction. Residual strains and stresses can be generated during high-pressure die casting process due to high thermal gradients and may cause fatigue failure or dimensional distortion. Neutron diffraction can measure the residual strain distributions deep inside castings with complex geometries, because neutrons can penetrate substantially more material than x-rays. In the present work, the residual strains (in the axial and hoop directions) along the whole cylinder bridge of high-pressure die cast A383 engine blocks in as-cast and heat-treated conditions were measured by neutron diffraction methods. The effect of heat treatment on the distribution and magnitude of residual strains was also investigated. The results indicate that the residual strain in the cylinder bridge is tensile in both the axial and hoop components for both the as-cast and the heat-treated engine blocks. The residual strain in the hoop direction is bigger in magnitude than the residual strain in the axial direction. Heat treatment significantly relaxes the residual strain in the axial direction but only slightly relaxes the residual strain in the hoop direction.