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Modeling and Simulation of Air-Source CO2 Heat Pump Water Heater...

by Zhiming Gao, Clifford K Rice, Kashif Nawaz
Publication Type
Conference Paper
Book Title
Proceedings of the 19th International Refrigeration and Air Conditioning Conference at Purdue
Publication Date
Page Number
Publisher Location
Indiana, United States of America
Conference Name
International Refrigeration and Air Conditioning Conference at Purdue
Conference Location
West Lafayette, IN 47907-2099, Indiana, United States of America
Conference Sponsor
Conference Date

Carbon dioxide (CO2) has been widely used as working fluid for the vapor-compression refrigeration systems in large marine device. Due to the potential energy efficiency and the favorable environmental properties of CO2 as a working fluid, CO2 heat pump water heater (HPWH) systems are regarded a promising technology for centralized domestic hot water (DHW) heating in residential and commercial buildings. However, there is still at the early stage of appropriately optimizing and improving the energy performance of CO2 HPWH. This requires CO2 HPWH simulation tools capable of capturing the accurate impact of the emerging compressor, throttle device, and heat exchanger technology on CO2 heat transfer and energy efficiency. In this study, high efficiency components (compressors, pumps, fans, heat exchangers) were identified and applied to the state-of-art CO2 HPWH designs and analyzed their performance by using numerical simulation. This was done by simulating the performance of CO2 HPWH using ACMODEL design model combined with the component models developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) for orifice tube, map-based compressor, and tube-in-tube gas cooler. ACMODEL is an equipment design model for CO2-based air conditioners and heat pumps developed by Purdue University to account for the details of each component. The simulated CO2 HPWH performance was then compared with the heat pump water heater using conventional refrigerants.