Biomass-derived deep eutectic solvents (DESs) have been introduced as promising pretreatment and fractionation solvents because of their mild processing conditions, easy synthesis, and green solvent components from biomass. In recent DES studies, solvent-based third constituents like water, ethanol, and others improve the processibility of typical binary DESs. However, the impacts of these components are not well understood. Here, two solvent-based constituents, including water and ethylene glycol, were applied to 3,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid (DHBA)-based DES system for improving the conversion efficiency of cellulose-rich fraction and the properties of lignin fraction. Chemical composition, enzymatic digestibility, degree of polymerization of cellulose and physicochemical properties of lignin were used to evaluate the impact of each third constituent on biomass processing. Ternary ChCl-DHBA DESs exhibited better performances in delignification, fermentable sugar production, and preservation of β-O-4 ether linkage in lignin compared with binary ChCl-DHBA DES.