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Heterogeneities at multiple length scales in 2D layered materials: From localized defects and dopants to mesoscopic heterostr...

Publication Type
Journal Name
Nano Research
Publication Date
Page Numbers
1625 to 1649

Two-dimensional (2D) materials hold great promise for applications in optoelectronics, quantum information science, and energy conversion due to their remarkable properties imbued by their physical characteristics. Although heterogeneities in their intrinsic structure are the major challenges limiting their synthesis and predictable properties, they also provide a pathway to controllably tune the properties and broaden the potential of 2D materials. Heterogeneities that can be tailored, including defects, dopants, strain, edges, and layer stackings offer transformative opportunities in heterogeneous 2D materials through the introduction of novel properties for technological applications. This article provides a review of recent progress in studying heterogeneities in 2D materials. The review uses examples from our work to develop a strategy to understand the heterogeneities across multiple length scales to link the effect of heterogeneity at the nanoscale with the macroscale properties of 2D materials. We describe specific types of heterogeneities and explore novel synthesis and processing methods for their controlled production with example of the potential impact and applications enabled by their intriguing properties. Finally, we provide a perspective on how to extend the range of tunable properties through further engineering the heterogeneities in 2D materials.