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Electro-Optic Modulation Using Metal-Free Perovskites...

Publication Type
Journal Name
ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Publication Date
Page Numbers
19042 to 19047

Electro-optic (EO) modulation is of interest to impart information onto an optical carrier. Inorganic crystals—most notably LiNbO3 and BaTiO3—exhibit EO modulation and good stability, but are difficult to integrate with silicon photonic technology. Solution-processed organic EO materials are readily integrated but suffer from thermal degradation at the temperatures required in operating conditions for accelerated reliability studies. Hybrid organic–inorganic metal halide perovskites have the potential to overcome these limitations; however, these have so far relied on heavy metals such as lead and cadmium. Here, we report linear EO modulation using metal-free perovskites, which maintain the crystalline features of the inorganic EO materials and incorporate the flexible functionality of organic EO chromophores. We find that, by introducing a deficiency of cations, we reduce the symmetry in the perovskite crystal and produce thereby an increased EO response. The best-engineered perovskites reported herein showcase an EO coefficient of 14 pm V–1 at a modulation frequency of 80 kHz, an order of magnitude higher than in the nondefective materials. We observe split peaks in the X-ray diffraction and neutron diffraction patterns of the defective sample, indicating that the crystalline structure has been distorted and the symmetry reduced. Density functional theory (DFT) studies link this decreased symmetry to NH4+ deficiencies. This demonstration of EO from metal-free perovskites highlights their potential in next-generation optical information transmission.