In this study, we have developed a method to optimize a layer deposition time (a.k.a. layer time) for large-scale additive manufacturing (AM) via physics-based simulations. A long layer time leads to an over-cooled surface on which a new layer is deposited, and therefore, it may result in a weak bonding or debonding between layers, cracking, or warping. A short layer time leads to a high temperature of the structure due to insufficient cooling, and therefore, the structure may not be stiff enough and may collapse during manufacturing. Therefore, it is important to estimate the optimal layer time in additive manufacturing for a high-quality product. The temperature of a top layer right before deposition is recommended to be slightly higher than the glass temperature of the material. A temperature cooling was approximated to an exponential function of time, and the optimized layer time was obtained based on a target temperature while maintaining a minimal printing time. The material used is carbon fiber-reinforced polycarbonate (CF/PC), and the large-scale deposition system used is LSAM TM from Thermwood Corporation. Three different layer time cases were used for experiments, and a series of thermal images were obtained via an infra-red (IR) camera during the entire AM processes. AM process simulations were performed using a finite element method and the temperature profiles from the simulation were in good agreement with those from experiments. The layer time optimization was performed based on the temperature profiles from the simulations. A layer temperature with the optimal layer time was confirmed as the target temperature through simulation.