Endometriosis is an estrogen dependent gynecological disease associated with altered microbial phenotypes. The association among endogenous estrogen, estrogen metabolites, and microbial dynamics on disease pathogenesis has not been fully investigated. Here, we identified estrogen metabolites as well as microbial phenotypes in non-diseased patients (n = 9) and those with pathologically confirmed endometriosis (P-EOSIS, n = 20), on day of surgery (DOS) and ~1–3 weeks post-surgical intervention (PSI). Then, we examined the effects of surgical intervention with or without hormonal therapy (OCPs) on estrogen and microbial profiles of both study groups. For estrogen metabolism analysis, liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry was used to quantify urinary estrogens. The microbiome data assessment was performed with Next generation sequencing to V4 region of 16S rRNA. Surgical intervention and hormonal therapy altered gastrointestinal (GI), urogenital (UG) microbiomes, urinary estrogen and estrogen metabolite levels in P-EOSIS. At DOS, 17β-estradiol was enhanced in P-EOSIS treated with OCPs. At PSI, 16-keto-17β-estradiol was increased in P-EOSIS not receiving OCPs while 2-hydroxyestradiol and 2-hydroxyestrone were decreased in P-EOSIS receiving OCPs. GI bacterial α-diversity was greater for controls and P-EOSIS that did not receive OCPs. P-EOSIS not utilizing OCPs exhibited a decrease in UG bacterial α-diversity and differences in dominant taxa, while P-EOSIS utilizing OCPs had an increase in UG bacterial α-diversity. P-EOSIS had a strong positive correlation between the GI/UG bacteria species and the concentrations of urinary estrogen and its metabolites. These results indicate an association between microbial dysbiosis and altered urinary estrogens in P-EOSIS, which may impact disease progression.