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Continuous Variable Cluster State Generation over the Optical Spatial Mode Comb

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Journal Name
Physical Review A
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One-way quantum computing uses single-qubit projective measurements performed on a cluster state (a highly entangled state of multiple qubits) in order to enact quantum gates. The model is promising due to its potential scalability; the cluster state may be produced at the beginning of the computation and operated on over time. Continuous variables (CV) offer another potential benefit in the form of deterministic entanglement generation. This determinism can lead to robust cluster states and scalable quantum computation. Recent demonstrations of CV cluster states have made great strides on the path to scalability, utilizing either time or frequency multiplexing in optical parametric oscillators (OPO), both above and below threshold. The techniques relied on a combination of entangling operators and beam-splitter transformations. Here we show that an analogous transformation exists for amplifiers with Gaussian inputs states operating on multiple spatial modes. By judicious selection of local oscillators, the spatial mode distribution is analogous to the optical frequency comb consisting of axial modes in an OPO cavity. We outline an experimental system that generates cluster states across the spatial frequency comb, which can also scale the amount of quantum noise reduction to potentially larger than in other systems.