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Autonomous PLD Synthesis Development Platform

FHN Automated PLD setup

Highly automated pulsed laser deposition (one conventional and one codeposition chamber) and robotic sample transfer are combined with in situ diagnostics (RHEED and Ion Probe) and post-growth analysis (XPS and Raman/PL) to implement a machine learning based workflow for materials synthesis, discovery, and algorithm development.


  • Laser source: 248 nm excimer laser, 1 J/pulse, 1 Hz to 20 Hz repetition rate
  • Number of targets: four in each chamber with computer-controlled target sequencing
  • Spot size at target: adjustable from sub millimeter to a few millimeters
  • Fluence at target: adjustable from sub 1 J/cm2 up to 3 J/cm2
  • Deposition rate: adjustable from sub angstroms to almost 1 angstrom per laser shot
  • In situ diagnostics: high pressure RHEED and Ion Probe
  • Base pressure: 2x10-7 torr
  • Ambient: currently argon or oxygen, pressured controlled to multiple millitorrs up to 100s of millitorrs
  • Heating: Laser up to 1000°C
  • Substrate size: 5 mm x 5 mm
  • 16 sample garage
  • Target-to-substrate: fixed at 50 mm
  • Witec RISE for post-growth optical characterization
  • Scienta Omicron XRS Lab for post-growth compositional analysis
  • Python-powered workflow