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An improved framework for the dynamic likelihood filtering approach to data assimilation...

by Dallas Foster, Juan M Restrepo
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We propose improvements to the Dynamic Likelihood Filter (DLF), a Bayesian data assimilation filtering approach, specifically tailored to wave problems. The DLF approach was developed to address the common challenge in the application of data assimilation to hyperbolic problems in the geosciences and in engineering, where observation systems are sparse in space and time. When these observations have low uncertainties, as compared to model uncertainties, the DLF exploits the inherent nature of information and uncertainties to propagate along characteristics to produce estimates that are phase aware as well as amplitude aware, as would be the case in the traditional data assimilation approach. Along characteristics, the stochastic partial differential equations underlying the linear or nonlinear stochastic dynamics are differential equations. This study focuses on developing the explicit challenges of relating dynamics and uncertainties in the Eulerian and Lagrangian frames via dynamic Gaussian processes. It also implements the approach using the ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF) and compares the DLF approach to the conventional one with respect to wave amplitude and phase estimates in linear and nonlinear wave problems. Numerical comparisons show that the DLF/EnKF outperforms the EnKF estimates, when applied to linear and nonlinear wave problems. This advantage is particularly noticeable when sparse, low uncertainty observations are used.