We describe a detection system designed to precisely measure multiple correlations in neutron beta decay. The system is based on thick, large area, highly segmented silicon detectors developed in collaboration with Micron Semiconductor, Ltd. The prototype system meets specifications of energy thresholds below 10 keV, energy resolution of ~3 keV FWHM, and rise time of ~50 ns with 19 of the 127 detector pixels instrumented. Using ultracold neutrons at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center, we have demonstrated the coincident detection of beta particles and recoil protons from neutron beta decay. The fully instrumented detection system will be implemented in the UCNB and Nab experiments, to determine the neutron beta decay parameters B, a, and b.