This chapter summarizes radiochemistry and its applications with a focus on areas where computational science can be beneficial. This is presented for a target audience of computational scientists and chemists, and the general public who are interested in radiochemistry topics that may benefit from the use of computational methods. Past, present, and future applications of radiochemistry are presented along with a brief examination of the field’s workforce. Discussions of the current state of several radiochemistry specialty areas are also included. These discussions generally exemplify topics that are readily amenable to computational tools. Topics discussed include medical uses for radioactive materials and related computational needs; the current and future trends in the separations of the f-block elements; production and uses of Californium-252; and the need for exascale computing to solve current problems in the chemistry of Americium and Plutonium.