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Multiplicity and transverse momentum evolution of charge-dependent correlations in pp, p-Pb, and Pb-Pb collisions at the LHC

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European Physical Journal C, The - Particles and Fields
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We report on two-particle charge-dependent correlations in pp, p-Pb, and Pb-Pb collisions as a function of the pseudorapidity and azimuthal angle difference, Delta eta and Delta phi respectively. These correlations are studied using the balance function that probes the charge creation time and the development of collectivity in the produced system. The dependence of the balance function on the event multiplicity as well as on the trigger and associated particle transversemomentum (p(T)) in pp, p-Pb, and Pb-Pb collisions at root s(NN) = 7, 5.02, and 2.76 TeV, respectively, are presented. In the low transverse momentum region, for 0.2 < p(T) < 2.0 GeV/c, the balance function becomes narrower in both Delta eta and Delta phi directions in all three systems for events with higher multiplicity. The experimental findings favor models that either incorporate some collective behavior (e.g. AMPT) or different mechanisms that lead to effects that resemble collective behavior (e.g. PYTHIA8 with color reconnection). For higher values of transverse momenta the balance function becomes even narrower but exhibits no multiplicity dependence, indicating that the observed narrowing with increasing multiplicity at low pT is a feature of bulk particle production.