Jason Davidson Fowlkes

Jason Davidson Fowlkes

R & D Staff

Bio

Research Interests

Education
University of Tennessee-Knoxville B. S. 1997 Materials Science & Engineering
University of Tennessee-Knoxville M.S. 1999 Materials Science & Engineering
University of Tennessee-Knoxville Ph.D. 2002 Materials Science & Engineering

Professional Experience
2007–present Research Staff Member, Center for Nanophase Materials Sciences, ORNL
2004–2007 Research Assistant Professor, University of Tennessee-Knoxville
2003–2004 Postdoctoral Research Fellow, University of Tennessee-Knoxville

Professional Activities, Honors, Awards
Organizer, 3rd International Workshop on Focused Electron Bead Induced Processing, 2010
Microscopy & Microanalysis Invited Talk: “Electron Beam Induced Deposition: Experiments, Challenges and Nano–Based Applications,” Richmond, July, 2009
Microscopy & Microanalysis Invited Talk: “Electron Beam Induced Processing: Experimentation, Simulation and Applications,” Albuquerque, August 2008
Sigma Xi Scientific Presentation Competition Winner, 2002
Outstanding Graduate Student Materials Science and Engineering, 2002
Reviewer, ACS Nano; Small; Nanotechnology; Thin Solid Films
Tau Beta Pi, Engineering Honors Society, 2002

Professional Memberships:
American Association for the Advancement of Science
American Chemical Society

Research Interests
1. Charged Particle Beam-Induced, Direct-Write Deposition/Etching
Nanoscale direct-write assembly methods, such as focused particle beam processing, require precise understanding and control of the relevant electron/ion–vapor precursor–solid interactions where energy beams on the order of 1–10 nm dictate the assembly/removal of material at the confluence of the particle beam, adsorbed precursor and substrate. We determine precursor–substrate interaction parameters relevant for the electron/ion beam induced deposition methods through a combination of experiments and simulations. Monte Carlo simulations of the electron–substrate interaction are combined with finite difference simulations of precursor–substrate interactions to unravel the parameters by fitting to experimental results.

2. Self and Directed Assembly of Thin, Liquid Metallic Films
Physical vapor deposition combined with nanolithography methods are used to deposit metallic materials with highly non-equilibrium shapes. Capillary, inertial and viscous forces dictate the mass transport of the metal once liquefied. The initial shape of the metallic feature is used to harness liquid surface instabilities for the self assembly of metallic nanoparticles. Pulsed laser irradiation is used to liquefy the metal features where rapid heating and cooling rates and nanosecond melt lifetimes are achievable. Directed assembly is possible by imposing periodic fluctuations onto the initial metal geometry which translates into highly precise arrays of metallic nanoparticles/nanocaps.

3. Solute Diffusion in Crowded Environments
Biomolecular transport in cellular environments occurs in crowded surroundings where molecular reactivity and diffusion can be significantly altered when compared with dilute solution conditions. By the prescribed design of spatially restricted environments, micro- and nanofabrication techniques can be used to replicate specific features of such systems. We implement Monte Carlo, Brownian based simulation methods to design, and fabricate, micro- and nano- size containers and crowding features intended to control the reaction and diffusion of matter at biologically relevant length and time scales.

Publications

C. Hartnett, K. Mahady, J. D. Fowlkes, S. Afkhami, L. Kondic and P. D. Rack, “Instability of Nano – and Microscale Liquid Metal Filaments: Transition from Single Droplet Collapse to Multidroplet Breakup”, Langmuir (accepted) (2015)

M. G. Stanford, B. B. Lewis, J. H. Noh, J. D. Fowlkes and P. D. Rack, “Inert Gas Enhanced Laser–Assisted Purification of Platinum Electron-Beam-Induced-Deposits”, ACS Applied Materials and Interfaces 7, 19579-19588 (2015)

J. D. Fowlkes, B. Geier, B. Lewis, P. D. Rack, M. Stanford, R. Winkler and H. Plank, “Electron nanoprobe induced oxidation: a simulation of direct–write purification”, Physical Chemistry and Chemical Physics 17, 18294 (2015)

B. B. Lewis, M. G. Stanford, J. D. Fowlkes, K. Lester, H. Plank and P. D. Rack, “Electron Stimulated Purification of Platinum Nanostructures Grown Via Focused Electron Beam Induced Deposition”, Beilstein Journal of Nanotechnology 6, 907 (2015)

J. H. Noh, J. D. Fowlkes, R. Timilsina, M. Stanford, B. Lewis and P. D. Rack, “Pulsed laser assisted focused electron beam induced etching of titanium with XeF2: enhanced reaction rate and precursor transport”, ACS Applied Materials and Interfaces 7, 4179 (2015)

R. Winkler, A. Szkudlarek, J. D. Fowlkes, P. D. Rack, I. Utke and H. Plank, “Toward Ultrafast Surface Morphologies During Focused Electron Beam Induced Nanosynthesis: Disruption Origins and Compensation”, ACS Applied Materials and Interfaces 7, 2389 (2015)

R. Schmied, J. D. Fowlkes, R. Winkler, P. D. Rack and H. Plank, “Fundamental edge broadening effects during focused electron beam induced nanosynthesis”, Beilstein Journal of Nanotechnology 6, 462 (2015)

J. T. McKeown, Y. Wu, J. D. Fowlkes, P. D. Rack and G. H. Campbell, “Simultaneous In Site Synthesis and Characterization of Co@Cu Core–Shell Nanoparticle Arrays”, Advanced Materials 27, 1060 (2015)

C. Durand, X. –G. Zhang, J. D. Fowlkes, S. Najmaei, J. Lou and A. –P. Li, “Defect – mediated transport and electronic irradiation effect in individual domains of CVD – grown monolayer MoS2”, Journal of Vacuum Science & Technology B 33, 02B110 (2015)

M. G. Stanford, B. B. Lewis, J. H. Noh, J. D. Fowlkes, N. A. Roberts, H. Plank and P. D. Rack, “Purification of nanoscale electron beam induced platinum deposits via pulsed laser induced oxidation reaction”, ACS Applied Materials and Interfaces 6, 21256 – 21263 (2014)

L. Kondic, N. Dong, Y. Wu, J. D. Fowlkes and P. D. Rack, “Instabilities of nanoscale patterned metal films”, European Physics Journal Special Topics 224, 369 (2015)

B. Geier, C. Gspan, R. Winkler, R. Schmied, J. D. Fowlkes, Harald Fitzek, S. Rauch, J. Rattenberger, P. D. Rack and H. Plank, “Rapid and highly compact purification for focused electron beam induced deposits: a low temperature approach using electron stimulated H2O reactions”, Journal of Physical Chemistry C 118, 14009 (2014)

J. H. Noh, M. G. Stanford, B. B. Lewis, J. D. Fowlkes, H. Plank and P. D. Rack, “Nanoscale electron beam induced deposition and purification of ruthenium for extreme ultraviolet lithography mask repair”, Applied Physics A 117, 1705 (2014)

D. C. Skigin, J. D. Fowlkes, N. A. Roberts, L. Scaffardi, D. Schinca and M. Lester, “Experimental demonstration of the ability of dual–period wire gratings to control the optical response”, Optics Letters 39, 5693 (2014)

T. D. Nguyen, M. Fuentes–Cabrera, J. D. Fowlkes and P. D. Rack, “Coexistence of spinodal instability and thermal nucleation in thin film rupture: Insights from molecular levels”, Physical Review E 89, 032403 (2014)

Y. Wu, S. Fu, J. D. Fowlkes, N. Dong, L. Kondic, M. A. Vincenti, D. de Cegia and P. D. Rack, “ Directed liquid phase assembly of highly ordered metallic nanoparticle arrays”, ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces 6, 5835 (2014)

G. Arnold, R. Timilsina, J. Fowlkes, A. Orthacker, G. Kothleitner, P. D. Rack and H. Plank, “Fundamental resolution limits during electron-induced direct-write synthesis”, ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces 6, 7380 (2014)

R. Winkler, J. D. Fowlkes, A. Szkudlarek, I. Utke, P. D. Rack and H. Plank, “The Nanoscale Implications of a Molecular Gas Beam during Electron Beam Induced Deposition”, ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces 6, 2987 (2014)

J. D. Fowlkes, N. A. Roberts, Y. Wu., J. A. Diez, A. G. Gonzalez, C. Hartnett, K. Mahady, S. Afkhami, L. Kondic and P. D. Rack, “Hierarchical nanoparticle ensembles synthesized by liquid phase directed self–assembly”, Nano Letters 14, 774 (2014)

H. Plank, J. H. Noh, J. D. Fowlkes, B. Lewis, K. Lester and P. D. Rack, “Electron beam assisted oxygen purification at low temperatures of electron beam induced Pt deposits: towards pure and pore–free structures”, ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces 6, 1018 (2014)

W. Siemons, C. Beekman, J. D. Fowlkes, N. Balke, J. Z. Tischler, R. Xu, W. Liu, C. M. Gonzalez, J. D. Budai and H. M. Christen, “Focused–Ion–Beam induced damage in thin films of complex oxide BiFeO3”, APL Materials 2, 022109 (2014)

N. A. Roberts, C. M. Gonzalez, J. D. Fowlkes and P. D. Rack, “Enhanced By – product Desorption via Laser Assisted Electron Beam Induced Deposition of W(CO)6 with Enhanced Conductivity and Resolution”, Nanotechnology 24, 415301 (2013)

N. P. Mortensen, N. Boisen, S. Carey, S. J. Kennel, J. D. Fowlkes, M. J. Doktycz, J. P. Nataro and D. P. Allison, “Enteroaggregative Escherichia coli: Surface Protein Dispersin Increases Bacterial Uptake of Ciprofloxacin”, International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents 42, 462 (2013)

A. G. Gonzalez, J. A. Diez, Y. Wu, J. D. Fowlkes, P. D. Rack and L. Kondic, “Instability of Liquid Cu Films on a SiO2 Substrate”, Langmuir 29, 9378 (2013)

N. A. Roberts, J. D. Fowlkes, K. Mahady, S. Afkhami, L. Kondic and P. D. Rack, “Directed assembly of one – and two – dimensional nanoparticle arrays from pulsed laser induced dewetting of square waveforms”, ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces 5, 4450 (2013)
J. D. Fowlkes and P. C. Collier, “Single-molecule mobility in confined and crowded femtoliter chambers”, Lab on a Chip 13, 877 (2013)
N. A. Roberts, J. D. Fowlkes, G. A. Magel and P. D. Rack, “Enhanced materials purity and resolution via synchronized laser assisted electron beam induced deposition of platinum”, Nanoscale 5, 410 (2013)

J. T. McKeown, N. A. Roberts, J. D. Fowlkes, Y. Wu, T. LaGrange, B. W. Reed, G. H. Campbell and P. D. Rack, “Real-time observation of nanosecond liquid-phase assembly of nickel nanoparticles via pulsed-laser heating”, Langmuir 28, 17168 (2012)

J. D. Fowlkes, L. Kondic, J. A. Diez, A. G. Gonzalez, Y. Wu, N. A. Roberts, C. E. McCold and P. D. Rack, “Parallel assembly of particles and wires on substrates by dictating instability evolution in liquid metal films”, Nanoscale 4, 7376 (2012)

T. D. Nguyen, M. Fuentes–Cabrera, J. D. Fowlkes, J. A. Diez, A. G. Gonzalez, L. Kondic and P. D. Rack, “Competition between Collapse and Breakup in Nanometer – Sized Thin Rings Using Molecular Dynamics and Continuum Modeling”, Langmuir 28, 13960 (2012)

J. D. Fowlkes, S. Horton, M. Fuentes–Cabrera and P. D. Rack, “Signatures of the Rayleigh–Plateau Instability Revealed by Imposing Synthetic Perturbations on Nanometer–Sized Liquid Metals on Substrates”, Angewandte Chemie International Edition 51, 8768 (2012)

W. Wang, Z. Gai, M. Chi, J. D. Fowlkes, J. Yi, L. Zhu, X. Cheng, D. J. Keavney, P. C. Snijders, T. Z. Ward, J. Shen and X. Xu, “Growth diagram and magnetic properties of hexagonal LuFe2O4 thin films”, Physical Review B 85, 155411 (2012)

N. A. Roberts, G. A. Magel, C. D. Hartfield, T. M. Moore, J. D. Fowlkes and P. D. Rack, “In situ laser processing in a scanning electron microscope”, Journal of Vacuum Science and Technology A 30, 041404 (2012)

Y. Wu, J. D. Fowlkes, N. A. Roberts, J. A. Diez, L. Kondic, A. G. Gonzalez and P. D. Rack, “Competing liquid phase instabilities during pulsed laser induced self–assembly of copper rings into ordered nanoparticle arrays on SiO2”, Langmuir 27, 13314 (2011)

M. Fuentes–Cabrera, B. R. Rhodes, M. I. Baskes, H. Terrones, J. D. Fowlkes, M. L. Simpson and P. D. Rack, “Controlling the Velocity of Jumping Nanodroplets via Their Initial Shape and Temperature”, ACS Nano 5, 7130 (2011)

N. P. Mortensen, J. D. Fowlkes, M. Maggart, M. J. Doktycz, J. P. Nataro, G. Drusano and D. P. Allision, “Effects of sub–minimum inhibitory concentrations of ciprofloxacin on enteroaggregative Escherichia Coli and the role of the surface protein dispersin”, International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents 38, 27 (2011)

J. D. Fowlkes, L. Kondic, J. Diez, Y. Wu and P. D. Rack, “Self–Assembly versus Directed Assembly of Nanoparticles via Pulsed Laser Induced Dewetting of Patterned Metal Films”, Nano Letters 11, 2478 (2011)

M. Fuentes–Cabrera, B. H. Rhodes, J. D. Fowlkes, A. Lopez–Benzanilla, H. Terrones, M. L. Simpson and P. D. Rack, “Molecular dynamics study of the dewetting of copper on graphite and graphene: Implications for nanoscale self – assembly”, Physical Review E 83, 041603 (2011)

Y. Wu, J. D. Fowlkes and P. D. Rack, “The optical properties of Cu–Ni nanoparticles produced via pulsed laser dewetting of ultrathin films: The effect of nanoparticle size and composition on the Plasmon response”, Journal of Materials Research 26, 277 (2011)

R. Clearfield, J. G. Railsback, R. C. Pearce, D. K. Hensley, J. D. Fowlkes, M. Fuentes–Cabrera, M. L. Simpson, P. D. Rack and A. V. Melechko, “Reactive solid–state dewetting of Cu–Ni films on silicon”, Applied Physics Letters 97, 253101 (2010)

B. R. Srijanto, S. T. Retterer, J. D. Fowlkes and M. J. Doktycz, “Nanostructured silicon membranes for control of molecular transport”, Journal of Vacuum Science and Technology B 28, C6P48 (2010)

J. D. Fowlkes, Y. Wu and P. Rack, “Directed Assembly of Bi–Metallic Nanoparticles by Pulsed Laser Induced Dewetting: a Unique Time and Length Scale Regime”, ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces 2, 2153 (2010)

Y. Wu, J. D. Fowlkes, P. D. Rack, J. A. Diez and L. Kondic, “On the Breakup of Patterned Nanoscale Copper Rings into Nanoparticles: Competing Instability and Transport Mechanisms”, Langmuir 26, 11972 (2010)

C. K. Choi, J. D. Fowlkes, S. T. Retterer, P. Siuti, S. Iyer and M. J. Doktycz, “Surface Charge- and Space-Dependent Transport of Proteins in Crowded Environments of Nanotailored Posts”, ACS Nano 4, 3345 (2010)

J. D. Fowlkes, M. J. Doktycz and P. D. Rack, “An optimized nanoparticle separator enabled by electron beam induced deposition”, featured article, Nanotechnology 21, 165303 (2010)

J. D. Fowlkes and P. D. Rack, “Fundamental Electron–Precursor–Solid Interactions Derived from Time–Dependent Electron–Beam–Induced–Deposition Simulations and Experiments”, ACS Nano 4, 1619 (2010)

A. Dhawan, M. Gerhold, A. Madison, J. Fowlkes, P. E. Russell, T. Vo–Dinh and D. N. Leonard, “Fabrication of Nanodot Plasmonic Waveguide Structures Using FIB Milling and Electron Beam – Induced Deposition”, Scanning 31, 1 (2009)

B. L. Fletcher, J. T. Fern, K. Rhodes, T. E. McKnight, J. D. Fowlkes, S. T. Retterer, D. J. Keffer, M. L. Simpson and M. J. Doktycz, “Effects of ultramicroelectrode dimensions on the electropolymerization of polypyrrole”, Journal of Applied Physics 105, 124312 (2009)

N. P. Mortensen, J. D. Fowlkes, C. J. Sullivan, D. P. Allison, N. B. Larsen, S. Molin, and M. J. Doktycz, “Effects of Colistin on Surface Ultrastructure and Nanomechanics of Pseudomonas aeruginosa Cells”, Langmuir 25, 3728 (2009)

L. Kondic, J. A. Diez, P. D. Rack, Y. Guan and J. D. Fowlkes, “Nanoparticle assembly via the dewetting of patterned thin metal lines: Understanding the instability mechanisms”, Physical Review E 79, 026302 (2009)

Y. Guan, J. D. Fowlkes, S. T. Retterer, M. L. Simpson, and P. D. Rack, “Nanoscale lithography via electron beam induced deposition”, Nanotechnology 19, 505302 (2008)

J. D. Fowlkes, B. L. Fletcher, S. T. Retterer, A. V. Melechko, M. L. Simpson, and M. J. Doktycz, “Size–Selectivity and Anomlaous Subdiffusion of Nanoparticles through Carbon Nanofiber–Based Membranes”, Nanotechnology 19, 415301 (2008)

D. A. Smith, J. D. Fowlkes and P. D. Rack, ”Simulating the effects of surface diffusion on electron beam induced deposition via a three – dimensional Monte Carlo simulation”, Nanotechnology 19, 415704 (2008)

P. D. Rack, Y. Guan, J. D. Fowlkes, A. V. Melechko and M. L. Simpson, “Pulsed laser dewetting of patterned thin metal films: A means of directed assembly”, Applied Physics Letters 92, 223108 (2008)

K. L. Klein, S. J. Randolph, J. D. Fowlkes, L. F. Allard, H. M. Meyer III, M. L. Simpson and P. D. Rack, “Single–crystal nanowires grown via electron–beam–induced deposition”, Nanotechnology 19, 345705 (2008)

K. D. Sorge, K. L. Klein, A. V. Melechko, C. L. Finkel, O. Malkina, Th. Leventouri, J. D. Fowlkes, P. D. Rack, and M. L. Simpson, “Magnetic Properties of Fe–Co Catalysts used for Carbon Nanofiber Synthesis”, Journal of Applied Physics 104, 033909 (2008)

D. A. Smith, J. D. Fowlkes, and P. D. Rack, “Understanding the Kinetics and Nanoscale Morphology of Electron Beam Induced Deposition via a Three Dimensional Monte Carlo Simulation: The Effects of the Precursor Molecule and the Deposited Material”, Small 4, 1382 (2008)

K. L. Klein, A. V. Melechko, T. E. McKnight, S. T. Retterer, P. D. Rack, J. D. Fowlkes, D. C. Joy, and M. L. Simpson, “Surface characterization and functionalization of carbon nanofibers”, Journal of Applied Physics 103, 061301 (2008)

B. L. Fletcher, S. T. Retterer, T. E. McKnight, A. V. Melechko, J. D. Fowlkes, M. L. Simpson, and M. J. Doktycz, “Actuatable Membranes Based on Polypyrrole – Coated Vertically Aligned Carbon Nanofibers”, ACS Nano, 2, 247 (2008)

A. V. Melechko, K. L. Klein, J. D. Fowlkes, D. K. Hensley, I. A. Merkulov, T. E. McKnight, P. D. Rack, J. A. Horton, and M. L. Simpson, “Control of carbon nanostructure: From nanofiber towards nanotube and back”, Journal of Applied Physics 102, 074314 (2007)

P. D. Rack, J. D. Fowlkes, and S. J. Randolph, “In-situ probing of the growth and morphology in electron-beam-induced deposited nanostructures”, Nanotechnology, 18, 465602 (2007)

B. L. Fletcher, T. E. McKnight, J. D. Fowlkes, D. P. Allison, M. L. Simpson and M. J. Doktycz, “Controlling the dimensions of carbon nanofiber structures through the electropolymerization of pyrrole”, Synthetic Metals 157, 282 (2007)

S. J. Randolph, J. D. Fowlkes, A. V. Melechko, K. L. Klein, H. M. Meyer III, M. L. Simpson, and P. D. Rack, “Controlling thin film structure for the dewetting of catalyst nanoparticle arrays for subsequent carbon nanofiber growth”, Nanotechnology, 18, 465304 (2007)

D. A. Smith, J. D. Fowlkes, and P. D. Rack, “A Nanoscale Three Dimensional Monte-Carlo Simulation of Electron Beam Induced Deposition with Gas Dynamics”, Nanotechnology, 18, 265308 (2007)

J. D. Fowlkes, J. M., Fitz–Gerald, and P. D. Rack, “Ultraviolet emitting (Y1-xGdx)2O3- thin films deposited by radio frequency magnetron sputtering: structure–property–thin film processing relationships”, Thin Solid Films 515, 3488 (2007)

Y. Deng, J. D. Fowlkes, J. M. Fitz – Gerald, and P. D. Rack, “Thin Film rf Magnetron Sputtering of Gadolinium Doped Yttrium Aluminum Garnet Ultraviolet Emitting Materials”, Optical Mat. 29, 183 (2006)

J. D. Fowlkes, J.– M., Fitz–Gerald, and P. D. Rack, “Ultraviolet emitting (Y1-xGdx)2O3- thin films deposited by radio frequency magnetron sputtering: Combinatorial modeling, synthesis, and rapid characterization”, Thin Solid Films 510, 68 (2006)

J. D. Fowlkes, E. D. Hullander, B. L. Fletcher, S. T. Retterer, A. V. Melechko, D. K. Hensley, M. L. Simpson, and M. J. Doktycz, “Molecular Transport in a Crowded Volume Created from Vertically–Aligned Carbon Nanofibers: A Fluorescence Recovery after Photobleaching Study”, Nanotechnology 17, 5659 (2006)

M. S. Dhindsa, N. R. Smith, J. Heikenfeld, P. D. Rack, J. D. Fowlkes, M. J. Doktycz, A. V. Melechko, and M. L. Simpson, “Reversible Electrowetting of Vertically Aligned Superhydrophobic Carbon Nanofibers”, Langmuir 22, 9030 (2006)

S. J. Randolph, J. D. Fowlkes, and P. D. Rack, “Focused, Nanoscale Electron–Beam–Induced Deposition and Etching”, Critical Reviews in Solid State and Materials Sciences 31, 1–35 (2006)

J. D. Fowlkes, A. V. Melechko, K. L. Klein, P. D. Rack, D. A. Smith, D. K. Hensley, M. J. Doktycz, and M. L. Simpson, “Control of catalyst particle crystallographic orientation in vertically aligned carbon nanofiber synthesis”, Carbon 44, 1503 (2006)

K. L. Klein, A. V. Melechko, J. D. Fowlkes, P. D. Rack, D. K. Hensley, H. M. Meyer III, L. F. Allard, T. E. McKnight, and M. L. Simpson, “Formation of Ultrasharp Vertically Aligned Cu–Si Nanocones by a DC Plasma Process” Journal of Physical Chemistry B. 110, 4766 (2006)

T. E. McKnight, C. Peeraphatdit, S. W. Jones, J. D. Fowlkes, B. L. Fletcher, K. L. Klein, A. V. Melechko, M. J. Doktycz, and M. L. Simpson, “Site–Specific Biochemical Functionalization along the Height of Vertically Aligned Carbon Nanofiber Arrays”, Chemical Materials 18, 3203 (2006)

T. Leventouri, A. V. Melechko, K. D. Sorge, K. L. Klein, J. D. Fowlkes, P. D. Rack, I. M. Anderson, J. R. Thompson, T. E. McKnight, and M. L. Simpson, “Magnetic alloys in nanoscale biomaterials”, Metallurgical and Materials Transactions A – Physical Metallurgy and Materials Science 37A, 3424 (2006)

J. D. Fowlkes, B. L. Fletcher, E. D. Hullander, K. L. Klein, D. K. Hensley, A. V. Melechko, M. L. Simpson, and M. J. Doktycz, “Tailored transport through vertically aligned carbon nanofibre membranes; controlled synthesis, modelling, and passive diffusion experiments”, Nanotechnology 16, 3101 (2005)

S. J. Randolph, J. D. Fowlkes, and P. D. Rack, “Focused electron – beam – induced etching of silicon dioxide”, J. of Appl. Phys. 98, 34902 (2005)

J. D. Fowlkes, S. J. Randolph, and P. D. Rack, “Growth and simulation of high – aspect ratio nanopillars by primary and secondary electron – induced deposition”, J. of Vac. Sci. Tech. B 23, 2825 (2005)

K. L. Klein, A. V. Melechko, P. D. Rack, J. D. Fowlkes, H. M. Meyer, and M. L. Simpson, “Cu – Ni Composition Gradient for the Catalytic Synthesis of Vertically Aligned Carbon Nanofibers”, Carbon 43, 1857 (2005)

E. D. Specht, P. D. Rack, A. Rar, G. M. Pharr, E. P. George, J. D. Fowlkes, H. Hong, and E. Karapetrova, Metastable phase evolution and grain growth in annealed nanocrystalline Cr–Fe–Ni films”, Thin Solid Films 493, 307 (2005)

A. Rar, J. Frafjord, J. D. Fowlkes, E. D. Specht, P. D. Rack, M. L. Santella, E. P. George, and G. M. Pharr, “PVD Synthesis and High–Throughput Property Characterization of Ni–Fe–Cr Alloy Libraries”, J. of Meas. Sci. & Technol. 16, 46 (2005)

Y. Deng, J. D. Fowlkes, J. M. Fitz – Gerald, and P. D. Rack, “Combinatorial thin film synthesis of Gd – doped Y3Al5O12 ultraviolet emitting materials”, Appl. Phys. A, 80, 787 (2005)

S. J. Randolph, J. D. Fowlkes, P. D. Rack, “Effects of heat generation during electon–beam–induced deposition of nanostructure”, J. of Appl. Phys. 97, 124312 (2005)

Y. F. Guan, J. D. Fowlkes, A. J. Pedraza, and D. C. Joy, Nanostructures Produced by Ultraviolet Laser Irradiation of Silicon. I. Nanoprotrusions and Nanoparticles”, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 22, 2826 (2004)

A. J. Pedraza, Y. F. Guan, J. D. Fowlkes, and D. A. Smith, “Nanostructures Produced by Ultraviolet Laser Irradiation of Silicon. I. Rippled Structures”, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 22, 2823 (2004)

P. D. Rack, A. Thesen, S. Randolph, J. D. Fowlkes, and D. C. Joy, “Soft Electron Beam Etching for Precision TEM Sample Preparation, SPIE Microlithography 2003 : Metrology, Inspection, and Process Control for Microlithography XVII, 5038 paper #113 (2003)

J. M. Fitz – Gerald, J. G. Hoekstra, R. K. Bansal, J. D. Fowlkes, and P. D. Rack, “Temperature Dependent Cathodoluminescence Characterization of Ultraviolet Emitting Films Grown by Pulsed Laser Deposition”, MRS Symposium Proceedings, “Advanced Optical Processing of Materials”, eds. D. B. Chrisey, M. Dinescu, I. W. Boyd, and A. V. Rode, Vol. 764, Y1.4 (2003)

J. D. Fowlkes, P. D. Rack, R. Bansal, and J. M. Fitz-Gerald, “Cathodoluminescence Study of Gadolinium-Doped Yttrium Oxide Thin Films Deposited by Radio-Frequency Magnetron Sputtering”, MRS Symposium Proceedings, “New Applications for Wide-Bandgap Semiconductors”, eds. S. J. Pearton, J. Han, A.G. Baca, J.-I. Chyi, and W. H. Chang, Vol. 764, C7.12 (2003)

J. M. Fitz-Gerald, J. Hoekstra, P. D. Rack, and J.D. Fowlkes, “Pulsed-Laser-Deposited Ultraviolet-Emitting SrS:Te thin films”, Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 3466-3468 (2003)

A. J. Pedraza, J. D. Fowlkes, and Y. –F. Guan, “Surface Nanostructuring of Silicon”, Appl. Phys. A 77, 277 – 284 (2003)

P. D. Rack, S. Randolph, Y. Deng, J. Fowlkes, Y. Choi, and D. C. Joy, “Nanoscale electron–beam –stimulated processing”, Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 2326 - 2328 (2003)

J. M. Fitz–Gerald, J. Hoekstra, J. D. Fowlkes, and P. D. Rack, “Ultraviolet Emitting SrS:Te Thin Films”, MRS Symposium Proceedings, “Progress in Semiconductors II—Electronic and Optoelectronic Applications”, eds. B. D. Weaver, M. Omar Manasreh, C. Jagadish, and S. Zollner, Vol. 744, M4.1 (2003)

A. J. Pedraza, J. D. Fowlkes, S. Jesse and Y. Guan, "Laser-Promoted Nanostructure Evolution and Nanoparticle Alignment", Proceedings of SPIE. LASER 2003: Lasers and Applications in Science and Engineering 2003 Photonics West, “Photon Processing in Microelectronics and Photonics II, eds. A. Piqué, K. Sugioka, P. R. Herman, J. Fieret, F. G. Bachmann, J. J. Dubowski, W. Hoving, K. Washio, D. B. Geohegan, F. Trager, and K. Murakami, Vol. 4977, (2003)

J. D. Fowlkes and A.J. Pedraza, "Si Nanoparticle Synthesis and Self - Organization", MRS Symposium Proceedings, “Quantum Confined Semiconductor Nanostructures”, eds. J.M. Buriak, D.D.M. Wayner, F. Priolo, B. White, V. Klimov, L. Tsybeskov, Vol. 737, F5.7, (2003)

A. J. Pedraza, J. D. Fowlkes and Y. Guan, "Generation and manipulation of nanostructures by pulsed-laser processing", ed. Claude Phipps, "High Power Laser Ablation IV", SPIE Vol. 4760, pp. 164-174, (2002)

S. Jesse, A. J. Pedraza, J. D. Fowlkes, and J. Budai, "Etching-enhanced ablation and the formation of a microstructure in silicon by laser irradiation in an SF6 atmosphere", J. of Mater. Res., 17, 1002 (2002)

A. J. Pedraza, J. D. Fowlkes, D. A. Blom, and H. M. Meyer III, “Laser-Induced Nanoparticle Ordering”, J. of Mater. Res. 17, 2815 (2002)

J. D. Fowlkes, A. J. Pedraza, D. A. Blom, H. M. Meyer III, “Surface Microstructuring and the Long-Range Ordering of Silicon Nanoparticles”, Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 3799 (2002)

A. J. Pedraza, S. Jesse, Y. Guan, and J. D. Fowlkes, “Laser-Induced Surface Perturbations”, J. Mater. Res. 16, 3599 (2001)

S. Jesse, A. J. Pedraza, J. D. Fowlkes, J. Budai and D. H. Lowndes, “Microstructuring of silicon by pulsed – laser ablation under reactive atmospheres”, MRS Symposium Proceedings, “Microcrystalline and Nanocrystalline Semiconductor Materials and Structures", eds. P.M. Fauchet, J.M. Buriak, L.T. Canham, N. Koshida, B.E. White Jr., Vol. 638 F14.39.1 (2001)

J. D. Fowlkes, A. J. Pedraza, S. Jesse, C. M. Rouleau, and D. A. Blom, “Formation of Nanostructures in Silicon by Pulsed KrF Laser Irradiation”, MRS Symposium Proceedings, “Microcrystalline and Nanocrystalline Semiconductor Materials and Structures”, eds. P. M. Fauchet, J. M. Buriak, L. T. Canham, N. Koshida, B. E. White Jr., Vol. 638, F13.1.1 (2001)

A. J. Pedraza, J. D. Fowlkes, and D. H. Lowndes, “Laser ablation and column formation in silicon under oxygen – rich atmospheres”, Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 3018 (2000)

A. J. Pedraza, J. D. Fowlkes, and D. H. Lowndes, “Surface microstructuring by excimer laser irradiation in reactive atmospheres”, Appl. Sur. Sci. 168, 251 – 257 (2000)

J. D. Fowlkes, A. J. Pedraza and D. H. Lowndes, “Microstructural evolution of laser – exposed silicon targets in SF6 atmospheres”, Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 1629 (2000)

D. H. Lowndes, J. D. Fowlkes, and A. J. Pedraza, “Early stages of pulsed – laser growth of silicon microcolumns and microcones in air and SF6”, Appl. Sur. Sci. 154, 647 – 658 (2000)

D. H. Lowndes, V. I. Merkulov, A. J. Pedraza, J. D. Fowlkes, A. A. Puretzky, D. B. Geohegan, and G. E. Jellison, Jr., “Surface Engineering of Silicon and Carbon by Pulsed – Laser Ablation,” pp. 113 – 126 in Symposium on Surface Engineering: Science and Technology I (A. Kumar, ed.), The Minerals, Metals and Materials Society, Warrendale, PA, 1999

A. J. Pedraza, J. D. Fowlkes and D. H. Lowndes, “Self–organized silicon microcolumn arrays generated by pulsed laser irradiation”, Appl. Phys. A69, S731 (1999)

A. J. Pedraza, J. Fowlkes and D. H. Lowndes, “Silicon microcolumn arrays grown by nanosecond pulsed – excimer laser irradiation”, Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 2322 (1999)

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