For basic studies in the fracture of and toughening mechanisms in ceramics and ceramic composites, in the establishment of the relationships between microstructure and composition and mechanical behavior, and in the development of advanced ceramic materials.
For ideas and techniques which have opened new frontiers in chemical research and now play major roles in the study, understanding, and use of photoionization and photoelectron spectroscopy in studies of "hot atom" chemistry and work with multiply charged molecular ions.
For advances in neutron and gamma-ray dosimetry, the transport of electricity through gases, and the development of laser-based one-atom detection with applications in nuclear physics, solar neutrino research, and oceanic, geologic, and environmental research
For research on the processes involved in the induction of mutations, elucidating the roles and sequences of DNA repair and replication in converting radiation or chemical damage into mutations, and for contributions to the understanding of biological control mechanisms at the cellular level
For work at the forefront of neutron scattering research, for early work on the fundamentals of scattering from ferromagnetic materials, and for significant contributions to understanding the complex magnetic structures and properties of elements and compounds such as the heavy rare-earth metals
For work in magnetic resonance, including the early evaluation of spins and moments of radioactive nuclei and experiments in nuclear quadrupole spectroscopy, and for the application of electron spin resonance to study free radicals trapped in solids and short-lived radicals in pyrolyzed fluids
For pioneering work on energy conservation, including development of energy demand models, data bases, and analyses of energy use trends, which has contributed to federal and state energy policies and programs and to demand-side planning by electric utilities.
For distinguished research on the air/surface exchange of atmospheric trace gases and particles and their interactions with the Earth's biogeochemical cycles, and for pioneering developments in atmospheric sampling methodologies with special emphasis on the global mercury cycle.