For his innovation in the production and application of medical isotopes; for advancing the separation and purification of actinides and heavy elements; and for his leadership in the use of alpha emitters to save the lives of cancer patients.
For his broad scientific contributions and international reputation in aqueous chemistry and geochemistry; for his research into the structure, dynamics, and reactions at fluid–solid interfaces; and for his leadership and service to ORNL and the international scientific community.
Since 2001, Mike Simpson has been a group leader for the Nanofabrication Research Laboratory and theme leader in the Center for Nanophase Materials Sciences. His research focus includes noise biology, nano-enabled synthetic biology and controlled synthesis and directed assembly of carbon nanostructures.
For forefront studies of the fundamental science of actinide elements, through mendelevium, which employ novel experimental techniques, make systematic comparisons, and emphasize the role of the elements' electronic configurations.
For basic studies in the fracture of and toughening mechanisms in ceramics and ceramic composites, in the establishment of the relationships between microstructure and composition and mechanical behavior, and in the development of advanced ceramic materials.
For fundamental contributions to many areas of theoretical solid-state physics that directly relate to experimental programs, including the electronic structure and magnetism of transition and rare-earth metals, metal-electrolyte interfaces, superconductivity, and physical properties of heavy fermion, mixed valent, and fractal materials
For contributions to understanding plasma turbulence and the nonlinear properties of magnetohydrodynamic instabilities, especially their role in explaining the behavior of magnetically confined plasmas, and for development of new magnetic confinement concepts that overcome these limitations.
For ideas and techniques which have opened new frontiers in chemical research and now play major roles in the study, understanding, and use of photoionization and photoelectron spectroscopy in studies of "hot atom" chemistry and work with multiply charged molecular ions.
Mazur, who led the Theoretical and Applied Cryobiology Group in the Biology Division, concentrated his research on fundamental mechanisms responsible for injury to cells during freezing and warming. This research and other basic findings were described in his review paper "Freezing of Living Cells: Mechanisms and Implications."