For significant contributions and leadership in the processing and properties of materials, particularly intermetallic alloys, which have led to his reputation as one of the world's leading scientists in these areas.
For advances in neutron and gamma-ray dosimetry, the transport of electricity through gases, and the development of laser-based one-atom detection with applications in nuclear physics, solar neutrino research, and oceanic, geologic, and environmental research
For research on the processes involved in the induction of mutations, elucidating the roles and sequences of DNA repair and replication in converting radiation or chemical damage into mutations, and for contributions to the understanding of biological control mechanisms at the cellular level
For work at the forefront of neutron scattering research, for early work on the fundamentals of scattering from ferromagnetic materials, and for significant contributions to understanding the complex magnetic structures and properties of elements and compounds such as the heavy rare-earth metals
For work in magnetic resonance, including the early evaluation of spins and moments of radioactive nuclei and experiments in nuclear quadrupole spectroscopy, and for the application of electron spin resonance to study free radicals trapped in solids and short-lived radicals in pyrolyzed fluids
For contributions to nuclear data measurement, analysis, and applications, through determination and development of neutron-induced reaction cross sections, high-resolution neutron scattering, the nonlocal nuclear optical model, and uncertainty and covariance information
For contributions to the development of new concepts and advanced systems for power generation and conversion, through innovative designs of nuclear reactors for aircraft propulsion and space auxiliary power and concepts for thermonuclear fusion reactor power plants
For research extending the theoretical description of direct nuclear reactions and nuclear structure, as one of the first theorists to implement the much more refined and detailed treatment of experimental data made possible by computers