For his leadership in separations science and technology; for improving nuclear fuel recycling and waste removal; and for leading the development process that was instrumental in the cleanup of waste at the Savannah River Site.
For his innovation in the production and application of medical isotopes; for advancing the separation and purification of actinides and heavy elements; and for his leadership in the use of alpha emitters to save the lives of cancer patients.
For his broad scientific contributions and international reputation in aqueous chemistry and geochemistry; for his research into the structure, dynamics, and reactions at fluid–solid interfaces; and for his leadership and service to ORNL and the international scientific community.
For internationally recognized contributions in distributed and cluster computing, including the development of the Parallel Virtual Machine and the Message Passing Interface standard now widely used in science to solve computational problems in biology, physics, chemistry, and materials science.
For forefront studies of the fundamental science of actinide elements, through mendelevium, which employ novel experimental techniques, make systematic comparisons, and emphasize the role of the elements' electronic configurations.
For significant contributions and leadership in the processing and properties of materials, particularly intermetallic alloys, which have led to his reputation as one of the world's leading scientists in these areas.
For contributions to understanding plasma turbulence and the nonlinear properties of magnetohydrodynamic instabilities, especially their role in explaining the behavior of magnetically confined plasmas, and for development of new magnetic confinement concepts that overcome these limitations.
For contributions to the development of new concepts and advanced systems for power generation and conversion, through innovative designs of nuclear reactors for aircraft propulsion and space auxiliary power and concepts for thermonuclear fusion reactor power plants