Progress, and Applications
of the Human Genome Project
Sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy Human Genome Program
Human Genome News Archive Edition
Human Genome News, January-June 1997; 8:(3-4)
In 1977, bacteriophage phi-x174 (5386bp) became the first organism to be sequenced completely, by Sanger and colleagues [Nature 246, 687 (1977)]. In 1982, bacteriophage lambda (48,502bp) was completed using a strategy based on sequencing random fragments of DNA, in this case produced by digesting the lambda genome with restriction enzymes, again by Sanger and colleagues [J. Mol. Biol. 162, 729 (1982)].
Thirteen years elapsed before the first nonviral organism was sequenced completely, this time using whole-genome random sequencing and assembly, called shotgun sequencing. In July1995, Fleischmann and colleagues reported the completion of Haemophilus influenzae (1,830,137bp), the first free-living organism to be sequenced [Science 269, 469 (1995)]. At the end of 1995, the complete DNA sequence of Mycoplasma genitalium (580,070bp), another free-living organism, was published by Fraser and colleagues. M. genitalium DNA encoded only 470 predicted ORFs, providing an estimate for the minimal number of genes needed to support life [Science 270, 349 (1995)].
Since 1995, complete genomic sequences have been published or made available for four more organisms: Methanococcus jannaschii, an Archaeon; Synechosystis, a cyanobacterium species; Mycoplasma pneumoniae, a eubacterium closely related to M. genitalium; and the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the first eukaryotic organism to be completely sequenced.
Note: See Attendees Discuss Small Genome Sequencing Progress for more information.
Back to Home Page
Back to Table of Contents
The electronic form of the newsletter may be cited in the following style:
Human Genome Program, U.S. Department of Energy, Human Genome News (v8n3).
Last modified: Wednesday, October 29, 2003
Home * Contacts * Disclaimer
Document Use and Credits
Publications and webpages on this site were created by the U.S. Department of Energy Genome Program's Biological and Environmental Research Information System (BERIS). Permission to use these documents is not needed, but please credit the U.S. Department of Energy Genome Programs and provide the website http://genomics.energy.gov. All other materials were provided by third parties and not created by the U.S. Department of Energy. You must contact the person listed in the citation before using those documents.
Base URL: www.ornl.gov/hgmis
Site sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Science, Office of Biological and Environmental Research, Human Genome Program