|Genome Sequencing Technologies and Resources
DOE Human Genome Program Contractor-Grantee Workshop
34. Automation and Integration of Multiplexed On-Line Sample Preparation with Capillary Electrophoresis for High-Throughput DNA Sequencing
Edward S. Yeung, Hongdong Tan, and
An integrated and multiplexed on-line instrument starting from DNA templates to their primary sequences has been demonstrated based on multiplexed microfluidics and capillary array electrophoresis. The instrument automatically processes 8 templates through reaction, purification, denaturation, preconcentration, injection, separation and detection in a parallel fashion. A multiplexed freeze/thaw switching principle and a distribution network were utilized to manage flow and sample transportation. Dye-labeled terminator cycle-sequencing reactions are performed in an 8-capillary array in a hot-air thermal cycler. Subsequently, the sequencing ladders are directly loaded into separate size exclusion chromatographic columns operated at ~60 C for purification. On-line denaturation and stacking injection for capillary electrophoresis is simultaneously accomplished at a cross assembly set at ~70 C. Not only the separation capillary array but also the reaction capillary array and purification columns can be regenerated after every run. The raw data allow base calling up to 460 bp with an accuracy of 98%. The system is scalable to a 96-capillary array and will benefit not only high-speed, high-throughput DNA sequencing but also genetic typing.
An automated and integrated system for DNA typing directly from blood samples has been developed. The multiplexed eight-array system is based on capillary microfluidics and capillary array electrophoresis. Three short-tandem-repeat loci, vWA, THO1 and TPOX, are co-amplified simultaneously in a fused-silica capillary by a hot-air thermocycler. Blood is directly used as the template for polymerase chain reaction. Modifications of standard protocols are necessary for direct PCR from blood. A programmable syringe pump plus a set of multiplexed liquid nitrogen freeze/thaw switching valves are employed for liquid handling in the fluid distribution network. The system fully integrates sample loading, PCR, addition of an absolute standard, on-line injection of sample and standards, separation and detection. The genotypes from blood samples can be clearly identified in eight parallel channels when the electropherograms are compared with that of the standard allelic ladder by itself. Regeneration and cleaning of the entire system prior to subsequent runs are also integrated into the instrument. The system can be expanded to hundreds of capillaries to achieve even higher throughput.
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