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- A cross between an animal that is heterozygous for alleles obtained from two parental strains and a second animal from one of those parental strains. Also used to describe the breeding protocol of an outcross followed by a backcross.
Bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC)
- A vector used to clone DNA fragments (100- to 300-kb insert size; average, 150 kb) in Escherichia coli cells. Based on naturally occurring F-factor plasmid found in the bacterium E. coli.
- One of the molecules that form DNA and RNA molecules.
nucleotide, base pair, base sequence
Base pair (bp)
- Two nitrogenous bases (adenine and thymine or guanine and cytosine) held together by weak bonds. Two strands of DNA are held together in the shape of a double helix by the bonds between base pairs.
- The order of nucleotide bases in a DNA molecule; determines structure of proteins encoded by that DNA.
Base sequence analysis
- A method, sometimes automated, for determining the base sequence.
- The study of genes that may influence behavior.
- The science of managing and analyzing biological data using advanced computing techniques. Especially important in analyzing genomic research data.
- The use of biological organisms such as plants or microbes to aid in removing hazardous substances from an area.
- A set of biological techniques developed through basic research and now applied to research and product development. In particular, biotechnology refers to the use by industry of recombinant DNA, cell fusion, and new bioprocessing techniques.
- Any harmful trait, physical or biochemical, present at birth, whether a result of a genetic mutation or some other nongenetic factor.
congenital, gene, mutation, syndrome
- A computer program that identifies homologous (similar) genes in different organisms, such as human, fruit fly, or nematode.
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